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    橡膠制品配方設計與膠料工藝性能的關系

    發布時間:2017-07-12 23:13:00 點擊:    關鍵詞:密煉機,捏煉機,開煉機,橡膠機械

    泰州科德橡膠機:所謂加工性能好的配方是配方與制造方法和加工設備相適應的配方。
    1.可塑性,可塑性除了塑練工藝外,還可以通過調整軟化劑的用量來得到。軟化劑對可塑性影響順序為;油酸>松焦油>硬脂酸>松香>瀝青>植物油>礦物油。填充劑降低可塑性,影響大小按下列順序;槽法碳黑>乙炔炭黑>陶土>氧化鎂>碳酸鎂>爐法炭黑>硫酸鋇>立德粉>氧化鋅>碳酸鈣>熱裂法碳黑。同一種膠種因使用設備、工藝方法、工藝條件不同具有的可塑性也有差異,不能一概而論。在密練機中高速混練時,丁苯橡膠與氯丁橡膠在高溫中易生成凝膠,粘度反而上升,使填充劑分散不良導致硫化膠物性不理想,這也是造成復合制品粘著不好的原因。配方中加入防老劑、及亞硝基-2-萘酚有防止丁苯膠凝膠作用,加入五氯硫酚或DM可防止硫黃調節型氯丁膠凝膠。使用兩種橡膠并用時粘度高的必須先塑練,因為兩種橡膠粘度兩差太遠,易引起聚合物分散不良。聚氯乙烯或聚乙烯與熱塑性塑料并用時,在加入填充前必須比塑料熔點稍高點溫度下使兩者混合均勻。
    2.混練特性,填充劑混入速度快而分散不良的情況很多,一般來說,粒子近于球形、假比重的填充劑混入速度快,炭黑的結構低的有利于混入。壓出收縮與結構有關,結構愈高收縮愈小。比表面積大不利于混入。加入填充之前加入油類軟化劑可使膠料粘度下降,加快填充劑的混入速度,但會帶來分散不良。因此原則上是后加油。高填充配方在混練時,可分批加入填充及油料。從配方設計角度方面考濾,可選用分散良好的填充劑。分散良好的填充劑應具備以下條件,A,補強性較小B相同配方中粒經較大C,含水份較少D,假比重較大E,具有異向性能F,碳黑結構度較高等。操作油中芳烴含量高亦能促進分散。促進劑一般易分散,但必須注意硫黃的分散。
    3.包輥性。強度高、粘性好、具有收縮性的生膠包輥性好,天然膠的粘性,強度高所以包輥性好,合成橡膠中除了氯丁橡膠外一般強度都很低,所以在配合上要多想辦法,選擇增加混練膠強度的填充劑,補強性高的炭黑、白炭黑、硬質陶土、碳酸鎂、白艷華等。而氧化鋅、硫酸鎂、鈦白等填充劑的混練強度降低。此外,易脫輥的還有陶土類、滑石粉、白艷化等。相反硬質陶土、碳酸鈣、白艷華等易粘輥,含芳烴高和操作油粘度高的,如,松焦油、樹脂、古馬隆樹脂、烷基酚醛樹脂等可以提高粘性著性。
    4.焦燒,當前生產中應用的槽法炭黑粒徑小,生熱大,但PH值低,一般不易焦燒,反之爐法炭黑則有促進硫化作用,容易焦燒,所以在碳黑用量多的配方中軟化劑用量要增加,這除了幫助分散作用外,還可以減少膠料的生熱對防止早期硫化是有效的。在配方中采用遲效性促進劑或臨界活化溫度高的促進劑,如DM或DM與D并用等。也可適量地配入防焦劑。
    5.噴霜,若噴出的是硫黃再次硫化可以消除,不是硫黃可以用稀鹽酸暫時擦去。為了防止噴霜,應選用顆粒小的硫黃,且用量要適當,應嚴格控制正硫化,并加強對游離硫的控制。其它配合劑如石臘、防老劑等在橡膠中都有一定的溶解度,當外界條件變化形成過保和,就可能噴出表面,防老劑選用分子量低的物質,則易噴出,易揮發,反之選用分子量高的則不易從膠料中遷到表面,因而起不到防止制品易老化的作用。防老劑用量在1.5份,多了也有噴出的可能。  
    6.壓延壓出性,壓延是由壓延機輥筒施力作用于熱練膠而使之壓成一定形狀,壓延效果的好壞決定于膠料的壓延能力或壓延后的收縮率。膠料的壓延能力是指壓延時膠料的塑性變型能力。它受到膠料的可塑性和應力松馳能力的影響。經壓延后,膠料在壓延方向上長度縮短,寬度變窄及厚度增加的現象叫收縮,其長度變化的比率叫收縮率。我們希望膠料在壓延后保持壓延形狀的能力,即希望膠料的塑性大,應力松馳能力大。影響壓延過程的主要因素有兩個方面,一是膠料方面,這是決定膠料流變形為的內在因素,二是工藝條件,如輥溫、輥速等。這是決定膠料流變形為的外在因素。膠料配方設計時主要考濾以下幾點。  
    A.生膠的選型,各種生膠分子結構特征不同,蠕變特性亦不一樣,丁苯膠分子結構的特征是側基比較笨重,分子比較僵硬,柔順性差,因而變形總是比較慢,在壓延輥筒上停留的時間內不能很好地達到平衡,而保持較大的彈性復原性,當離開輥筒后就改變了自已的形狀,所以丁苯橡膠較之天然橡膠具有較大的收縮率。天然橡膠的分子柔順性大應力松馳得快,在壓延機輥筒上能產生較大的塑性變形,保持壓延形狀能力大。一般來說,所有合成橡膠的壓延能力比天然膠小,天然橡膠壓延后的收縮率小。
    B,膠料的含膠率,膠料配方中同類生膠含膠率不同時對壓延的影響亦不同,含膠率高,膠料的彈性大,收縮率就較大。膠料中的填充劑,特別是炭黑,能夠使膠料變得較硬,壓延后不易變形。軟化劑可以增加膠料的塑性,使橡膠分子容易滑動,也能使膠料在壓延后獲得光滑表面的半制品。對于含膠率高、收縮大的膠料可適當地增加軟化劑的用量,有助于壓延性能的提高。
    C,硫化體系,膠料中硫黃用量、促進劑的品種和用量,與膠料焦燒性能有直接的關系,而膠料的焦燒性能又是壓延能力的一項重要指標。用來壓延的膠料必須使用具有較長的門尼焦燒時間的遲延性硫化體系,以確保壓延工藝的操作安全性。  良好的壓延工藝首先是包輥性,良好的包輥性又在于必要的收縮性,膠料的收縮性太大則壓延膠片表面粗糙,反之,收縮性太小有損于包輥性,如用粘著性補救則包輥的生膠強度降低,容易產生汽泡,為了解決這一矛盾,需要很好地平衡。膠料的壓出特性,壓出性能的好壞由以下幾項指標判斷;a,加料口的吃膠量b,壓出半成品的外觀質量。c,壓出收縮的大小d,壓出速度。從配方角度來說,吃膠情況和混練生膠的強度有很大的關系,壓出速度很大程度上取決于壓出機的類型。制定壓出膠料配方時必須考濾,壓出過程對膠料性能的要求以及膠料壓出創造的有利條件。如容易壓出、操作安全、表面光滑、花紋和斷面清晰等,這些對膠料的收縮彭脹有很大的影響。首先是含膠率,膠料的含膠率在95%以上時,彈性大,壓出的半成品收縮率大,表面粗糙。相反含膠率在25%以下時,如不適當地選擇軟化劑的品種和用量,也不易壓出,表面粗糙而無光澤,含膠率高時彭脹率也大,可以通過加入再生膠可以降低收縮率。
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