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    橡膠制品配方設計與硫化物性的關系

    發布時間:2017-07-12 23:12:00 點擊:    關鍵詞:密煉機,捏煉機,開煉機,橡膠機械

    泰州科德橡膠機械:一、高定伸強度即硬度較高的橡膠,常用天然膠、氯丁膠、丁睛膠等制造。用大量的填充劑,尤其是滑石粉能顯著增加硬度。但這樣會使抗張強度降低,改用槽法炭黑、高耐磨炭黑、白炭黑等,并用多量的促進劑硫化,增加交聯密度,可取得較好的結果。促進劑可采用D、M、或D/DM并用,亦可采用肖石灰無機促進劑。為了提高定伸強度,應少用軟化劑,可與熱固樹脂,如酚醛樹脂、苯乙烯樹脂并用。、添加堿性物質和少量的甘油,都有利于提高硫化膠的硬度。反之低定伸強度的軟橡膠可采用天然橡膠、丁基橡膠制造。通過減少填充劑用量,采用低硫配合方法,這樣膠料的成本會增加、且強力會下降,因此,低定伸膠料采用陶土、重質碳酸鈣、熱裂法碳黑的填充較好,另外,可適當應用硫化油膏。以及MBTS及硫脲類促進劑。
    二、彈性,制造高彈性膠料參考如下要上點;1,用彈性好的天然、順丁橡膠2,補強劑用量要少3.硫化劑和超促進劑用量適當增多4.少用軟化劑及增塑劑,但硫化交聯密度也不宜過大。
    三、抗張強度和伸長率,高抗張強度的配方采用天然橡膠、氯丁橡膠、氯黃化聚乙烯橡膠等結晶性橡膠。含膠率可達60%以左右。此外選用優秀的補強性填充劑如炭黑、白炭黑并使之分散均勻。用白炭黑時用量不宜超過25份,當使用非結晶性橡膠時要增大補強劑的用量,注意分散均勻并采用硫化速度較快的硫化體系。  
    1.降低硫黃的用量,多用軟化劑或增塑劑可獲得伸長率較大的橡膠制品。促進劑選用噻唑類,用量要適當增加、以保持硫硫化曲線的平坦性能,填充劑少加。以用陶土較好,亦可使用炭黑,尤其是軟質炭黑。  影響橡膠強度的因素是多方面的,除了交聯密度外主要因素如下,1.形變速度,強度時間依賴是所有材料的共同規律,在快速施力下,橡膠的強度要比慢速要高,這時因為快速施力時分子鏈還來不及伸展,鏈尚末受到張力的作用因而斷裂的機會減小,強度就增加。
    2.伸長結晶性,非結晶性橡膠的配方強力較低,對伸長結晶的天然膠,選擇適當的硫化體系,強力可達到250公斤/厘米左右。這是因為天然橡膠隨著伸長的增加,在拉伸方向上產生結晶的緣故,天然橡膠的結晶約需2秒以上短于些時間,在高速試驗條件下不顯示補強作用。
    3.溫度,不同溫度下測得的抗張強度有差別的。合成橡膠、尤其是極性較大的橡膠在低溫下有較高的抗張強度,在高溫時抗張強度較低,使用補強劑雖可提高強度,但仍不如天然橡膠硫化膠。為了改善這一缺點。可以采用在合成橡膠中引入能產生化學交聯的官能團,借以形成主價鍵的方法,或使結構中具有活潑的氫原子的化學結構,利用富有反應性的鹵素增加交聯等來提高橡膠的強度。4.分子量,強度隨著分子量增大而增加,這是因為分子鏈長時,分子間的作用力大,分子鏈的柔順性相對增大些,如分子鏈上有極性取代基時,使次價提高,其強度也會提高。  5.支化和凝膠,在聚合過程中或在高溫強列機械作用下能使橡膠橡膠分子產生支鏈,由于支鏈的存在使大分子排列不規則,硫化后使橡膠的網狀結構不完整,可能產生裂縫,使強度降低。在聚合過程中產生的凝膠也破壞了橡膠分子的規整性,使橡膠強度降低。  
    四、撕裂強度  影響撕裂強度的主要因素如下: 1.在純膠配方中,與其它合成橡膠相比,常溫下天然橡膠的撕裂強度大,且溫度升高時變化也不大。2.與非結晶性橡膠相比,常溫時結晶橡膠撕裂強度大,但除了天然橡膠外,隨著溫度的升高都有明顯的下降。3.用炭黑補強的合成橡膠的撕裂強度有明顯的改善,但仍不如天然橡膠,在配方中加入適量的再生膠,能降低生熱性對撕裂性能會有幫助。  4.使用各種同向性補強劑,如炭黑、白艷華、立德粉、氧化鋅等,效果較好、而各種異向性補強劑,如碳酸鎂、陶土、不會獲得高撕裂強度。粉狀纖維及短纖維則能提高抗撕裂強性、增加硬度,減少伸長率。硫化劑應選用CZ/DM和醛胺類,硫化程度不得過深。
    五、耐曲繞性,橡膠的耐曲繞性與臭氧龜裂,往復變型時的生熱、疲勞有密切的關系。因此使用天然、順丁這類生熱性小的橡膠為主要原料,補強劑使用軟質和粒徑大的炭黑,硫化體系設計為多硫健型的交聯結構。硫化時間選用正硫化前期,防老劑用量多一點
    六、耐磨性

    1.生膠的微觀結構對磨耗的影響較大,當分子鏈有共軛雙鍵存在時,可使橡膠的耐磨性提高,如丁苯膠中的苯環上含有共軛雙鍵基團,它能吸收及分布外界能量,使大分子鏈不易受到破壞。因此丁苯膠的彈性、強力、耐曲繞性、低溫性都差,但耐磨性較好。聚胺脂橡膠含有共軛苯環,所以在各種橡膠中的耐磨性名列前矛,比天然、丁苯高4倍以上。丁苯膠與天然膠相比時,15度以下天然膠耐磨性好,15度以上丁苯膠的耐磨性好。如果耐磨性提高,則抗滑性下降。因此,在彈性起支配作用的溫度范圍內,耐磨性與抗滑性存在著相反的關系。再生膠及油膠類物質的增多,耐磨性下降。  

    2.炭黑,不同的碳黑品種對配方性能影響不同,如,HAF磨耗量較低,但若與生熱無關,則MPC、ISAF較為優越,為了研究膠料的耐磨性還須研究生膠與炭黑的關系  

    3.防老劑與環境條件。防老劑AW的耐磨性好,防老劑D+4010次之。反應性防老劑4-亞硝基二苯胺(NPDA)可提供天然膠較低的生熱,明顯地提高耐磨性能。對于膠料具有較高的抗張強度和耐熱性,同時還需要綜合平衡耐磨和抗滑性,用氯化丁基橡膠加入55-65份超耐磨爐黑的耐磨性好。但氯化丁基橡膠的硬度稍有降低,這是熱分解和硫化返原的結果。


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