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    泰州科德橡膠機械-開煉機:橡膠的補強與填充體系

    發布時間:2019-08-19 12:09:00 點擊:    關鍵詞:密煉機,捏煉機,開煉機,橡膠機械

    泰州科德橡膠機械-開煉機密煉機捏煉機廠家2019年8月19日訊  補強:在橡膠中加入一種物質后, 使硫化膠的耐磨性、 抗撕裂強度、 拉伸強度、 模量、抗 溶脹性等性能獲得較大提高的行為。

        填充:在橡膠中加入一種物質后,能夠增大橡膠 的體積,降低制品的成本改善加工工藝性能 ,而又不明顯影響橡膠制品性能的行為。

        炭黑:由許多烴類物質 (固態、 液態或 氣態)經不完全燃燒或裂解生成的具 有高度分散性的黑色粉末物質, 主要 由碳元素組成, 是近乎球形的膠體粒 子,而這些粒子大都熔結成形狀不規則的聚集體( aggregate)。

    一、炭黑的生產工藝方法

    開煉機,密煉機,捏煉機,橡膠機械

    槽法炭黑是唯一可用于 與食品接觸 的橡膠用炭黑品種

    熱裂法炭黑 粒子最大、結構最低。

    二、炭黑的分類與命名

    開煉機,密煉機,捏煉機,橡膠機械

    三、炭黑的性質及技術指標

       1.炭黑的粒徑及分布 : 單顆炭黑粒子或聚集體中原生粒子的平均粒徑大小,單位常為 nm。

        炭黑工業常用的平均粒徑有 算術平均粒徑 和表面平均粒徑 兩種。

    2、炭黑的比表面積及表面粗糙度

        炭黑比表面積 :指單位質量或單位體積( 真實體積)中炭黑粒子的總表面積。粒徑 小,比表面積大。

    炭黑比表面積的測定方法 : (1)電子顯微鏡法( SE) (2)BET 法(低溫氮吸附法, SN)

    (3)碘吸附法(在碘—碘化鉀溶測中炭黑吸附碘的能力) (4) CTAB 大分子吸附法(十六烷基三甲基溴化銨

         表面粗糙度 :指炭黑粒子在形成過程中, 因粒子表面發生氧化侵蝕所形成的孔洞的多少,即氧化程度,也稱炭黑的孔隙度。用粗糙度系數 K 表示。

        表面粗糙度高的炭黑含氧基團多, 多呈酸性, 能遲延硫化速度, 增加吸水性, 降低補強效果。

    四、炭黑的結構度

    1.炭黑的微觀結構:烴裂解出的碳原子通過碰撞等作用形成正六邊形的碳核,碳核繼續增長形成層面, 3~ 5 個層面平行等距排列 組成一個微晶體。是準石墨晶體,且晶體中平行層面間距稍大于石墨晶體。

    2、炭黑的一次結構:炭黑聚集體( aggregate),又稱為基本聚熔體或原生結構,它是炭黑的最小結構單元。

    3、炭黑的二次結構:又稱為附聚體、凝聚體或次生結構,它是炭黑聚集體間以范德華力相互聚集形成的空間網狀結構, 這種結構不太牢固, 在與橡膠混煉時易被碾壓粉碎成為聚集體。

    炭黑結構度及其測定方法

         炭黑結構度 是指炭黑聚集體表面鏈枝狀結構的發達程度,鏈枝數量多而長,結構度越高。炭黑結構度的測定方法:視比容法(壓縮法) ,DBP 吸油值法 ,壓縮樣 DBP 吸油值法。

    五、炭黑的表面性質

    1.炭黑的化學組成

        揮發分 (volatile matter) :揮發分是將炭黑在隔離空氣的條件下高溫加熱, 大部分炭黑能放出H2,CO,CO2 等氣體,這便是揮發分。氧含量高時揮發分含量高,揮發分含量過高時(如槽法炭黑)會 遲延硫化 。

        水分 (water content):105℃下加熱減量即為水分含量。炭黑的水分含量與周圍環境的溫度,濕度有關, 與炭黑的比表面積, 孔隙度, 氧含量等有關。在標準氣壓下氧含量高的炭黑其水分含量亦高。應用水分含量過大的炭黑,混煉時間長(剪切力降低)擠出易起海綿,硫化膠會產生氣泡。

       灰分 (ash):炭黑的灰分主要來源于原料所含的灰分、設備銹蝕,急冷水所含的鹽分和其它固體殘渣。炭黑的灰分一 般不會引起硫化膠性能的改變,但灰分中若含 Cu,Mn,Fe 及其化合物(變價金屬離子及其鹽分)時會影響硫化膠的耐老化性能。550℃下灼燒。

    2、炭黑的表面基團

    開煉機,密煉機,捏煉機,橡膠機械

    六、炭黑的酸堿性

        爐法炭黑顯弱堿性, 槽法炭黑顯酸性。酸性炭黑硫化速度偏慢, 堿性炭黑硫化速度較快。

    七、炭黑的結合橡膠及包容膠

       1. 結合橡膠:也稱為炭黑凝膠( bound- rubber),是指炭黑混煉膠中不能被它的良溶劑溶解的那部分橡膠。

      2. 包容橡膠 :又稱吸留橡膠,是指在炭黑聚集體鏈枝狀結構中屏蔽(包藏)的那部分橡膠。包容膠的形成影響炭黑在橡膠中的添加量。

    八、炭黑對橡膠加工性能的影響

    1. 炭黑性質對混煉( mixing)的影響:

    (1)炭黑性質對混煉吃料及分散的影響

    炭黑的粒徑小,結構高,用量大 吃料慢;

    炭黑的粒徑小,結構低,用量大 分散差;

    (2)炭黑性質對混煉膠粘度的影響

    炭黑粒子小、結構度高、用量大、表面活性高,粘度高。

    (3)炭黑性質對混煉生熱及能耗的影響

    炭黑粒子小、結構度高、用量大、表面活性高,生熱高。

    炭黑粒子小、結構度高、用量大,混煉能耗大。

    (4)炭黑對膠料包輥性的影響

        在吃炭黑過程中,膠料的包輥性下降;炭黑被吃進去以后,可以改善包性。

    2 炭黑對膠料自粘性( autohension)影響

    炭黑粒徑小,表面活性大,結構度高,膠料的自粘性好。

    隨炭黑用量增大,膠料的自粘性先增大后下降。

    3.炭黑性質對壓延( calendering)的影響

    炭黑的粒徑小,結構度高,壓延收縮率小

    4.炭黑性質對壓出( extruding)的影響

        炭黑的結構性高, 混煉膠的壓出工藝性能較好, 口型膨脹率小,半成品表面光滑,壓出速度快。

    1. 炭黑性質對硫化( curing)的影響pH 值低,遲延硫化;pH 值高,膠料易焦燒,硫化速度快。炭黑粒徑小,結構高,易焦燒,硫化速度快。

    九、炭黑對橡膠的補強機理

        應力軟化效應:試樣拉伸到一定長度( L)后除掉外力,在間隔較短的時間后再次拉伸到相同長度時,拉伸力小于第一次拉伸力的現象。

    十、白炭黑對橡膠的補強

    氣相法白炭黑粒徑 8~17nm

    沉淀法白炭黑粒徑 17~28nm


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